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Source: Halilovic J, Dager W. Acute kidney injury. In: DiPiro, JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM, eds. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2017. Accessed December 6, 2016.


  • Wide continuum of abrupt damage to kidneys, ranging from mild renal dysfunction to need for renal replacement therapies (RRTs), such as hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

  • Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of Kidney Function, and End-Stage Renal Disease (RIFLE) and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) are classification systems based on separate criteria for serum creatinine (Scr) and urine output used to stage severity of AKI (Table 1).

    • AKIN criteria require a time constraint of 48 hours for diagnosis.

TABLE 1.abcRIFLE and AKIN Classification Schemes for Acute Kidney Injurya

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