Source: Knodel LC, Duhon B, Argamany J. Sexually transmitted diseases. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2017. http://accesspharmacy.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1861§ionid=146072585. Accessed March 8, 2017.
Requires cellular material from host cells for replication.
Maintains cellular identity throughout development.
Frequent coinfection with gonorrhea.
Chlamydial genital infections more frequently asymptomatic, and when present, symptoms tend to be less noticeable (Table 1)
Nearly two-thirds of infants acquire chlamydial infection after endocervical exposure, with primary morbidity associated with seeding of infant’s eyes, nasopharynx, rectum, or vagina.
TABLE 1.Presentation of Chlamydia Infections ||Download (.pdf) TABLE 1. Presentation of Chlamydia Infections
| ||Men ||Women |
|General ||Incubation period—35 days ||Incubation period—7–35 days |
|Symptom onset—7–21 days ||Usual symptom onset—7–21 days |
|Site of infection ||Most common—urethra ||Most common—endocervical canal |
|Others—rectum (receptive anal intercourse), oropharynx, eye ||Others—urethra, rectum (usually due to perineal contamination), oropharynx, eye |
|Symptoms ||>50% of urethral and rectal infections asymptomatic ||>66% of cervical infections asymptomatic |
|Urethral infection—mild dysuria, discharge ||Urethral infection—usually subclinical; dysuria and frequency uncommon |
|Pharyngeal infection—asymptomatic to mild pharyngitis ||Rectal and pharyngeal infection—symptoms same as for men |
|Signs ||Scant to profuse, mucoid to purulent urethral or rectal discharge ||Abnormal vaginal discharge or uterine bleeding; purulent urethral or rectal discharge can be scant to profuse |
|Rectal infection—pain, discharge, bleeding |
|Complications ||Epididymitis, Reiter syndrome (rare) ||Pelvic inflammatory disease and associated complications (ie, ectopic pregnancy, infertility) |
|Reiter syndrome (rare) |
MEANS OF CONFIRMATION AND DIAGNOSIS