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Source: Mattox TW, Crill CM. Parenteral nutrition. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM, eds. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2017. Accessed March 23, 2017.


  • Provision of macro- and micronutrients by central or peripheral venous access to meet specific nutritional requirements.


  • Consider parenteral nutrition (PN) when nutritional requirements cannot be met through use of gastrointestinal (GI) tract (Table 1).

  • Consider after suboptimal nutritional intake for:

    • 1 day in preterm infants.

    • 2–3 days in term infants.

    • 3–5 days in critically injured children.

    • 5–7 days in other children.

    • 7–14 days in older children and adults.

  • Route and type of PN depend on patient’s clinical state and expected length of PN therapy.

TABLE 1.Indications for Adult Parenteral Nutrition

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