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Source: O’Connell MB, Borchet JS. Osteoporosis and Osteomalacia. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM, eds. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2017. Accessed May 19, 2017.


  • Bone disorder characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), impaired bone architecture, and compromised bone strength predisposing to increased fracture risk.


  • Genetics.

  • Diet.

  • Lifestyle.

  • Hormonal status.

  • Diseases.

  • Medications (Table 1)

  • Aging.

TABLE 1.Select Medications Associated with Increased Bone Loss and/or Fracture Risk


  • Men and women begin to lose bone mass starting in third or fourth decade because of reduced bone formation.

  • Estrogen deficiency during menopause increases osteoclast activity, increasing bone resorption more than formation.

  • Etiology of ...

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