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Source: Kang-Birken SL. Sepsis and septic shock. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM, eds. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2017. Accessed May 22, 2017.


  • Systemic inflammatory response syndrome secondary to infection.

  • Definitions of terms related to sepsis in Table 1.

TABLE 1.Definitions Related to Sepsis


  • Sites of infection that most frequently lead to sepsis:

    • Respiratory tract (39–50%)

    • Urinary tract (5–37%)

    • Intra-abdominal space (8–16%)

  • Caused by:

    • Gram-positive bacteria (37–47% of cases)

      • Common gram-positive pathogens:

        • Staphylococcus aureus

        • Streptococcus pneumonia

        • Coagulase-negative staphylococci.

        • Enterococcus species.

    • Gram-negative bacteria (38% of cases)

      • Most common isolates: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

      • P. aeruginosa associated with a higher mortality ...

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