Source: Knodel LC, Duhon B, Argamany J. Sexually transmitted diseases. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM, eds. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2017. http://accesspharmacy.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1861§ionid=146072585. Accessed March 9, 2017.
Trichomonads isolated from vagina, urethra, and paraurethral ducts and glands in women.
After attachment to the vaginal or urethral mucosa, there is usually an inflammatory response that manifests as a discharge containing large numbers of PMN leukocytes.
Infection in extragenital sites may be source for reinfection.
TABLE 1.Presentation of Trichomonas Infections ||Download (.pdf) TABLE 1. Presentation of Trichomonas Infections
| ||Men ||Women |
|General ||Incubation period 3–28 days ||Incubation period 3–28 days |
| ||Organism may be detectable within 48 hours after exposure to infected partner || |
|Site of infection ||Most common—urethra ||Most common—endocervical canal |
| ||Others—rectum (usually due to rectal intercourse in men who have sex with men), oropharynx, eye ||Others—urethra, rectum (usually due to perineal contamination), oropharynx, eye |
|Symptoms ||May be asymptomatic (more common in men than women) or minimally symptomatic ||May be asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic |
| ||Urethral discharge (clear to mucopurulent) ||Scant to copious, typically malodorous vaginal discharge (50–75%) and pruritus (worsens during menses) |
| || ||Dysuria, dyspareunia |
| ||Dysuria, pruritus || |
|Signs ||Urethral discharge ||Vaginal discharge |
| || ||Vaginal pH 4.5–6 |
| || ||Inflammation/erythema of vulva, vagina, and/or cervix |
| || ||Urethritis |
|Complications ||Epididymitis and chronic prostatitis (uncommon) ||Pelvic inflammatory disease and associated complications (ie, ectopic pregnancy, infertility) |
| ||Male infertility (decreased sperm motility and viability) ||Premature labor, premature rupture of membranes, and low-birth-weight infants (risk of neonatal infections low) |
| || ||Cervical neoplasia |
MEANS OF CONFIRMATION AND DIAGNOSIS