Section 20: Nutritional Disorders
A 35-year-old woman (weight, 54.5 kg [120 lb]; height, 168 cm [5 ft 6 in.]) with short bowel syndrome is admitted with mild dehydration and weight loss. She has lost 4.5 kg (10 lb) in the past 4 months. Which of the following would be the most appropriate characterization of her nutrition status?
B. Starvation-induced malnutrition
C. Acute, disease-related malnutrition
D. Chronic, disease-related malnutrition
The answer is D. This patient has malabsorption and a chronic disease state. Her weight loss was over more than 3 months which puts her into the chronic, disease-related etiological category for malnutrition.
An interdisciplinary nutrition support team is designing a nutrition screening program for their hospital. Which of the following would be a meaningful trigger to identify a patient at high risk for nutrition-related complications?
A. Decreased oral intake for 3 days due to vomiting.
B. Significantly decreased oral intake for the past 3 weeks due to anorexia.
C. Planned weight loss of 4% of usual body weight (UBW) over the past 2 months.
D. Weight loss of 5% of UBW due to acute diarrhea-induced dehydration.
The answer is B. A patient with decreased oral intake for more than 1 to 2 weeks would meet the criteria for being at nutrition risk in most of the available nutrition screens.
Using ideal body weight (IBW), how would you characterize the nutrition status of a 50-year-old man whose weight is 60 kg (132 lb) and height is 183 cm (6 ft 0 in.)?
The answer is C. This patient’s IBW is 77.6 kg (171 lb); his actual weight is 60 kg (132 lb). His actual weight is 77% of his IBW which would be classified as moderate malnutrition.
A 69-year-old man weighs 75 kg (165 lb) and is 178 cm (5 ft 10 in.) tall. Based on his BMI, what is the best interpretation of his current nutrition status?