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Which of the following is an example of how cultural attitudes influence perceptions of women's pain in healthcare delivery?

A. When evaluating a woman's pain, her health care provider should query about her race because race is the most important cultural component in determining her pain expression and severity.

B. Her biology as a woman determines cultural views of how women express pain, are communicated with by providers, and are expected to behave in society.

C. Historically, women are less likely to receive treatment for pain because society views women's pain as emotional instead of physical.

D. When using a 1 to 10 pain scale with 10 being the worse pain possible, a pain score of 7 would mean the same intensity of pain for both a woman or a man and be considered similarly by a female or male physician.

C. Women's experiences with physical pain are dismissed as emotional pain due to gender bias. Due to numerous factors, women are still less likely to receive pain treatment.

A. The intersectionality of many social determinants will influence pain expression, including age, gender, race, ethnicity, literacy, comorbidities, and other social determinants of health. What is the predominant cultural aspect of pain will vary from one woman to another and from one woman to a man.

B. A person's sex is related to biology, assigned as female, male, or intersex at birth. Gender is a personal identity, expression, and societal interpretation of the body. Thus, sex is gendered by cultures that ascribe its meaning by establishing attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors about what it means to be a woman.

D. Women and men express pain differently. Women are more likely to have more facial expressions and crying during pain. Men will be more stoic and minimize the level of pain they are feeling. Thus, a pain level of 7 might underestimate a man's pain but could represent a true level of pain for a woman. Female providers recognize emotional symptoms better, and male providers recognize anger symptoms better, so the gender of the physician can influence the evaluation and treatment of pain.

What is the definition of cultural identity?

A. The process by which specific behaviors are ascribed to being female or male, or Arab, Asian, Black, Hispanic, or White.

B. The incorporation of multiple cultures and social determinants to understand patients and health care problem-solving.

C. A person's self-conception related to her/his age, gender, race or ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, and other attributes.


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