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Which of the following is a proposed hypothesis related to the pathophysiology of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy?

A. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels are decreased in pregnancy and this is temporally associated with symptoms

B. Human chorionic gonadotropin levels are increased in pregnancy and this leads to a transient hypothyroidism

C. Nausea and vomiting are associated with reduced energy intake, leading to lower levels of anabolic hormones and insulin

D. Reduced estradiol levels in pregnancy are associated with increased nausea and vomiting symptoms

C. Reduced energy intake seen with nausea and vomiting leads to lower levels of insulin and anabolic hormones and compensatory growth of the developing fetus

A. hCG levels are increased during pregnancy and there is a temporal relationship between increased HCG levels and nausea/vomiting symptoms

B. Although hCG levels are increased in pregnancy, this leads to transient hyperthyroidism via stimulation of the thyroid gland, leading to nausea/vomiting symptoms

D. Estradiol levels are increased in pregnancy, and as levels increase nausea and vomiting symptoms increase

A 28-year-old female who presents to her primary care provider for evaluation of nausea and vomiting symptoms. She is 7 weeks pregnant and complains of symptoms daily. Which of the following pharmacological treatment options would be the most appropriate for initial treatment?

A. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) and Doxylamine

B. Methylprednisolone

C. Diphenhydramine

D. Promethazine

A. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) and doxylamine is an appropriate first line pharmacologic treatment option after non-pharmacologic interventions have not been successful

B. Methylprednisolone should only be considered in women with signs/symptoms of dehydration who have failed other standard therapies. It should be used in cases of refractory hyperemesis due to a potential link to cleft palate.

C. Although diphenhydramine is an add-on therapy after non-pharmacological interventions and vitamin B6 (with or without doxylamine) have not improved symptoms

D. Although promethazine has not been associated with major malformations, it is recommended after non-pharmacological interventions and vitamin B6 (with or without doxylamine)

A 32-year-old pregnant woman presents to her primary care provider with complaints of increased heartburn. She is 27 weeks pregnant and reports trying non-pharmacological interventions such as eliminating certain foods from her diet and raising the head of her bed with no relief. She asks about recommendations for antacid use for her symptoms. Which of the following statements below regarding antacid use ...

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