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  1. Describe the benefits and limitations of pharmacogenomic information found in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration labeling.

  2. Differentiate between pharmacogenomics guidelines from the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium, the Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group, and the Canadian Pharmacogenomics Network for Drug Safety Consortium.

  3. Explain the type of information found in online pharmacogenomics databases, including the Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase, PharmVar, ClinGen, ClinVar, the Genetic Testing Registry, and the Genetics/Genomics Competency Center.

  4. Identify key resources that support the clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics, including the integration of pharmacogenomic test results into electronic health records with clinical decision support.

  5. Use an appropriate resource to find the relevant information when presented with a clinical pharmacogenomics case.

Pharmacogenomics is a rapidly evolving field. The science behind gene/drug associations and its clinical utility has outpaced educational efforts; health care providers currently receive limited, if any, formal training in pharmacogenomics.1,2 In spite of this, with the decline in the cost of genetic testing and the rise of direct-to-consumer genetic testing, clinicians will increasingly be called upon to incorporate pharmacogenomic test results into prescribing decisions. Fortunately, there are many freely available, evidence-based resources that clinicians can reference when faced with these challenges. Clinical practice guidelines exist that provide clinicians with actionable prescribing recommendations based on genetics. Online databases are also available that characterize and curate available pharmacogenomics literature, alleles, genetic testing laboratories, and educational resources. Implementation resources from clinical decision support to gene/drug implementation guides are also available online. When faced with a pharmacogenomics clinical question or implementation challenge, understanding the nature and scope of these diverse resources will be an asset. Leveraging these key resources will facilitate the appropriate use of pharmacogenomic data in patient care (Table 4-1).

TABLE 4-1Key Pharmacogenomics Resources

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