Pain is an unpleasant sensation that negatively affects a person's life, including comfort, sleep, emotion, and daily activity. Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage. As pain is a subjective, variable, and personal experience, it is difficult to describe and measure objectively. The clinician must guard against personal biases, which can interfere with treatment. One must also rely on tools such as pain scales to communicate with patients and understand the extent of their pain.
Pain is categorized according to its cause, location, duration, and clinical features. Pain categorization involves differentiating brief-duration (acute) pain from long-lasting (chronic) pain and types of pain including nociceptive (visceral and somatic) and neuropathic.
Acute pain generally results from injury or surgery, and is limited in duration and associated with objective features, such as increased heart rate, pulse pressure, anxiety, and/or sweating. Acute pain is intense at the beginning and typically decreases in intensity over time.
Chronic pain is a long-term experience, and sometimes subjective. A chronic disease that is characteristically painful for which there is no cure may lead to chronic pain, examples include: arthritis, cancer, migraine headaches, fibromyalgia, and diabetic neuropathy. Psychological conditions such as depression may exacerbate or contribute to chronic pain. Managing chronic pain should focus on improving the patient's quality of life and functional ability.
Visceral pain results from stimulation of internal organ pain receptors. Examples are hepatic cancer or pancreatitis. The painful stimuli from the internal organ receptors enter the spinal cord at multiple levels along with somatic fibers; therefore, patients describe the sensation as pressure-like, deep squeezing, and usually not very well localized or defined.
Somatic pain originates from irritation of pain fibers in the body surface or deep tissues. Examples are surgical incisional pain or surgical bone pain. Painful stimuli enter spinal cord at a single level, and the painful stimuli can be mapped on parietal cortex. The patient describes the pain as sharp, piercing from body surface or dull aching from deep tissues, and the individual can usually pinpoint the precise location of the painful origin.
Neuropathic pain is initiated or caused by a primary lesion, dysfunction, or transitory alteration in the peripheral or central nervous system resulting in sensations of burning, tingling, knife-like, or electric shock-like quality. These sensations are triggered by slight touches that are normally tolerated, and result in an exaggerated painful sensation.
Effective treatment considers the cause, duration, and intensity of pain and matches the appropriate intervention ...