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Chapter 21. Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

Select the infection(s) that is a/are lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). Select all that apply.

a. Pneumonia

b. Sinusitis

c. Bronchitis

d. Otitis

Answer a is correct. Pneumonia is an LRTI. There are different classifications of pneumonia, including community-acquired, aspiration, and hospital-acquired.

Answer c is correct. Bronchitis is an example of LRTIs. Bronchitis has two subsets: acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis. Acute bronchitis is usually a self-limiting viral infection.

Answers b and d are incorrect. Sinusitis is an upper respiratory tract infection. Other examples of upper respiratory tract infections include otitis media and pharyngitis.

AS is a 54 year-old man with fever, cough, and shortness of breath. He has been diagnosed with a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). Select bacterial pathogen(s) that is a common cause of LRTIs. Select all that apply.

a. Haemophilus influenzae

b. Moraxella catarrhalis

c. Influenza

d. Streptococcus pneumoniae

Answers a and b are correct. H. influenzae is a gram-negative coccobacillus and Moraxella catarrhalis is a gram-negative diplococcus—they are a common bacterial causes of LRTIs.

Answer d is correct. S. pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a gram-positive organism that is a common bacterial cause of LRTIs.

Answer c is incorrect. Influenza is a viral pathogen that is a common cause of LRTIs. Be able to recognize and differentiate the difference between H. influenzae (H. flu) and influenza. Both are causes of LRTIs; however, one is a bacteria and the other a virus.

QW is a patient admitted to a rehabilitation hospital to improve strength after cardiac surgery. He does not want to develop an infection (especially pneumonia) because it hurts when he coughs. He questions how he can prevent the development of pneumonia. Which of the following may prevent pneumonia? Select all that apply.

a. Infection control/prevention measures

b. Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine

c. Influenza vaccine

d. Levofloxacin

Answer a is correct. Infection control/prevention measures may prevent pneumonia cases. Examples of infection prevention measures are respiratory hygiene measures (use of hand hygiene and masks or tissues for patients with cough), hospitalized patients should be kept in a semirecumbent position, and enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral.

Answer ...

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