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Chapter 70. Pharmacoeconomics

Which of the following parameters is evaluated by a pharmacoeconomic analysis?

a. cost

b. Outcomes

c. Cost and outcomes

d. Side effects

e. Side effects and number needed to harm

Answer c is correct. A pharmacoeconomic analysis measures cost and outcomes. Outcomes research is defined as an attempt to identify, measure, and evaluate the end results of health care services. It may include not only clinical and economic consequences, but also outcomes, such as patient health status and satisfaction with their health care. Pharmacoeconomics is a type of outcomes research, but not all outcomes research is pharmacoeconomic research.

Answers a, b, d, and e are incorrect. If only cost is measured without regard for outcomes, this is a cost analysis. If only an outcome is measured without regard to costs, this is a clinical or outcome study.

What type of pharmacoeconomic analysis assumes the outcomes are equal?

a. Epidemiologic study

b. Retrospective study

c. Cost-minimization

d. Parametric analysis

Answer c is correct. A cost minimization analysis measures cost in dollars and outcomes are assumed to be equivalent.

Answers a, b, and d are incorrect.

A study is evaluating the cost associated with emergency room visits. What type of cost would emergency room visits represent?

a. Direct medical

b. Direct nonmedical

c. Indirect

d. Intangible

Answer a is correct. Direct medical costs are the medically related inputs used directly in providing the treatment. Examples of direct medical costs include costs associated with pharmaceutical products, physician visits, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations.

Answers b, c, and d are incorrect. The example above represents a direct medical cost; however, studies of an illness may include all four types of costs. For example, the cost of a procedure would include the direct medical costs of the procedure (medication, laboratory tests, and physician services), direct nonmedical costs (travel and lodging if required), indirect costs (cost due to the patient missing work), and intangible costs (fear about procedure).

A study is evaluating the cost associated with hotel and meal expenses for a patient traveling to see a subspecialist. What type of cost ...

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