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Chapter 56: Environmental & Occupational Toxicology

The light brownish color of smog often apparent in a major metropolitan area on a hot summer day is mainly due to

(A) Carbon monoxide

(B) Hydrocarbons

(C) Ozone

(D) Nitrogen dioxide

(E) Sulfur dioxide

Smog color is derived in part from suspended particulate matter. When smog is light brown, the color derives from nitrogen oxides. All of the other air pollutants listed are colorless. The answer is D.

You are stuck in traffic in New York City in summer for 3 or 4 h and you begin to get a headache, a feeling of tightness in the temporal region, and an increased pulse rate. What is the antidote based on the most likely cause of these effects?

(A) Activated charcoal

(B) Atropine

(C) Fomepizole

(D) Oxygen

(E) Pralidoxime

The symptoms described are those of carbon monoxide inhalation. Oxygen is the antidote. The answer is D. Note atropine and pralidoxime are used in insecticide poisoning with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and fomepizole is used in methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning.

A farm worker was accidentally in the field during the aerial spraying with parathion. He was brought to the emergency department. Which of the following will be used in the treatment of this patient?

(A) Antiseizure drugs

(B) Atropine and pralidoxime

(C) Hemodialysis

(D) Hyperbaric oxygen

(E) Measures to reduce pulmonary edema

Organophosphate poisoning is treated with the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine and pralidoxime, which regenerates cholinesterase. The answer is B.

A compound that is toxic to bone marrow cells in the early stages of development and that may also be leukemogenic is

(A) Benzene

(B) Carbon monoxide

(C) Glyphosate


(E) Pyrethrum

The aromatic hydrocarbon benzene is used as a solvent in industry. Long-term exposure is associated with increased risk of leukemia. The answer is A.


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