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INTRODUCTION

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A, B, C Preexponential constants for three-compartment model equation
α Probability of making a type 1 error
β Probability of making a type 2 error
α, β, γ Exponents for three-compartment model equation
λ1, λ2, λ3, …λz Exponents for three-compartment-type exponential equation (more terms may be added and indexed numerically with subscripts for multiexponential models), and exponent describing the last terminal phase (λz) regardless of the total number of exponents needed.
Delta (Δ) Delta is sometimes referred to as the “effect size” and is a measure of the degree of difference between tested population samples
μ0 The null hypothesis value for the mean
μa μa is the alternative hypothesis value expected for the mean
χ2 Chi-square test
Ab Total amount of drug in the body
ABC ATP-binding cassette
ABCB1 Gene coding for p-Glycoprotein; see also MDR1
ABW Actual body weight
ADME Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
AE Adverse event
Aeij Amount of drug excreted from time i to time j (usually in urine or feces)
Ae(m)ij Amount of metabolite excreted from time i to time j (usually in urine or feces)
ANCOVA Analyses of covariance
ANOVA Analysis of variance
API Active pharmaceutical ingredient
AR Absolute risk
ARI Absolute risk increase
AUC Area under the concentration–time curve
AUCinf, AUC0-inf, image Area under the concentration–time curve extrapolated to infinite time
AUC0-t, image Area under the concentration–time curve from time 0 to the last measurable drug concentration at time t
AUCtau, AUCτ Area under the concentration–time curve over the dosing interval
AUCtau(ss), AUCτ(ss) Area under the concentration–time curve at steady state
AUMC Area under the (first) moment–time curve
BA Bioavailability
BCS Biopharmaceutics Classification System
BDDCS Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System
BE Bioequivalence, Bioequivalent
BM Biomarker
BMI Body mass index
BRCP Breast cancer–resistance protein
BUN Blood urea nitrogen
C Concentration (mass/volume)
Ca Drug concentration in arterial plasma
Cav(ss), image Average steady-state plasma drug concentration
Cp Concentration of drug in plasma
Screat Serum creatinine concentration, in American units expressed as mg/dL
CE Clinical endpoint
Ceff Effective drug concentration
CGI Concentration of drug in gastrointestinal tract
CI Confidence interval
Cm Concentration of metabolite
Cmax Maximum concentration
Cmax(SS), image Maximum concentration of drug at steady state
Cmin Minimum concentration of drug
Cmin(SS) Minimum concentration of drug at steady state
image Concentration of drug in plasma at zero time (t = 0) (equivalent to C0)
Css, image Steady-state plasma drug concentration
Ct Concentration of drug in tissue
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
cGMP Current Good Manufacturing Practices
CKD Chronic kidney disease
CL, CLT Total body clearance
CLCR Creatinine clearance
CLD Distributional clearance
CLDIAL Dialysis clearance
CDD Critical dose drug
CLH Hepatic clearance
CL...

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