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Learning Objectives

After completing this chapter, the reader will be able to:

  • List the activities that occur at each step of the medication-use process.

  • Define pharmacy informatics and other core informatics terms.

  • Discuss the role of pharmacy informatics at each step of the medication-use process.

  • Describe challenges regarding effective utilization of computerized provider order entry (CPOE).

  • Describe the components of an e-prescribing system.

  • Describe the role of the three primary components of a clinical decision support system (CDSS).

  • Describe limitations of health information technology (HIT) that is used during the order verification step of the medication-use process.

  • Compare and contrast the health information technology used during dispensing in acute care and community pharmacy settings.

  • Define the role of bar code medication administration (BCMA).

  • Describe the role of the three primary components of a clinical surveillance system.

  • Describe the importance and application of the Internet of Things (IoT) and digital health to the emerging health care delivery system.

  • Describe the changing role of the patient in the U.S. health care system.

  • Explain the importance of interoperability to the future of the U.S. health care system, including the role of the U.S. government.

  • Describe the federal government’s role in driving health information technology adoption and use.

  • Compare and contrast privacy, security, and confidentiality as they relate to protected health information (PHI).

  • Define cyber security and describe methods to protect against cyber breaches.


Key Concepts

  • image The medication-use process is a system of interconnected parts that work together to achieve the common goal of safe and effective medication therapy.

  • image All pharmacists are affected by the electronic information systems that make up pharmacy informatics in virtually every aspect of practice.

  • image The two broad categories of information used in pharmacy informatics, as well as other clinical informatics domains, are patient-specific information and knowledge-based information.

  • image The vision of health care is becoming more patient-centric.

  • image The IoT and digital health are enabling technologies as the U.S. health care system moves to patient-centric model of care.

  • image The current health care system is decentralized and fragmented. Because of this, significant communication gaps exist when multiple health care institutions provide care for the same patient. Substantial evidence suggests that more effective communication would improve patient care and reduce medical errors, such as adverse drug events (ADEs).

  • image The desired result of interoperable systems and electronic health records (EHRs) is to readily provide all health practitioners in all locations, including the pharmacy, with access to information about a patient’s care, as needed.

  • image To drive adoption and use of EHRs, the federal government leveraged its position as policy maker and purchaser of health care through two programs focused on incentives and payments to providers and hospitals.

  • image As interoperability and digital health advances and more patient data are shared across providers and organizations, the issues of security, privacy, and confidentiality of PHI inevitability arise.


Health care ...

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