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Memorizing these standard concentrations will make conversions easier.

  • There is 1 mg of epinephrine in 1 ml of a 1:1000 solution.
  • There are 40 mEq of potassium in 30 ml of a 10% potassium chloride solution.
  • An 8.4% solution of sodium bicarbonate contains 1 mEq each of sodium and bicarbonate ions per ml.
  • There are 154 mEq of sodium in 1000 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride.
  • There are 50 grams of dextrose in 1000 ml of D5W.
  • There are 1700 calories in 1000 ml of D50W (500 grams of dextrose).
  • There are 400,000 units of penicillin equal to 250 mg.
  • A nitroglycerin 0.4 mg sublingual tablet contains 1/150 grains.

The following lists are intended to provide a brief review. They are by no means comprehensive and should not be used to make medical recommendations.

Transdermal Systems Should Be Changed Accordingly

Clonidine patchevery 7 days
Estradiol patchonce–twice weekly (depending on brand of product)
Fentanyl patch every 3 days
Lidocaine patch every day (remove for 12 hours each night)
Nicotine patch every day
Nitroglycerin patch every day
Oxybutynin patchtwice weekly
Scopolamine patch every 3 days

Common Vitamins and the Condition That Results from Their Deficiency

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)Scurvy
Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12 ) Pernicious anemia
Folic acidMegaloblastic anemia
Niacin (nicotinic acid) Pellagra
Thiamine (vitamin B1 ) Beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Vitamin D Rickets

Viruses and Antiviral Agents That Inhibit Them

Cytomegalovirus Cidofovir (Vistide)
Ganciclovir (Cytovene)
Foscarnet (Foscavir)
Fomivirsen (Vitravene)
Hepatitis B virus Adefovir dipivoxil
Interferon alfa-2b (Intron A)
Lamivudine (Epivir HBV)
Hepatitis C virusInterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin
Pegylated interferon
Herpes simplex virus Acyclovir (Zovirax)
Famciclovir (Famvir)
Valacyclovir (Valtrex)
Influenza A virus Amantadine (Symmetrel)
Rimantadine (Flumadine)
Influenza A and B virus Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
Zanamivir (Relenza)
Respiratory syncytial virusRibavirin (Rebetron)
Varicella-zoster virus Acyclovir (Zovirax)
Famciclovir (Famvir)
Valacyclovir (Valtrex)

Common Medications and Their Antidotes

Benzodiazepines Flumazenil
DigoxinDigoxin immune fab
Heparin Protamine
Methotrexate Leucovorin
Morphine (opiates) Naloxone
Nitrogen mustardSodium thiosulfate
Organophosphates Pralidoxime/2-PAM
WarfarinPhytonadione/vitamin K

Common Laboratory Tests and What They Indicate

ANA titer Rheumatic diseases
aPTT Used to monitor heparin therapy
Coombs Antibody screening for blood donor/recipient compatability
d-xylose GI function
Guaiac Occult blood in the stool
INRUsed to monitor warfarin therapy
Prostate specific antigen Prostate cancer
Prothrombin timeUsed to monitor warfarin therapy
Reinsch Screen for heavy metals
Schillings Vitamin B12 absorption (pernicious anemia)
Sweat test Cystic fibrosis
Tropronins Cardiac marker

Drugs That Have Commonly Been Associated with Hepatic Failure

  • Acetaminophen
  • Alcohol
  • Allopurinol
  • Carbamazepine
  • Cytarabine
  • Erythromycin (estolate salt)
  • Flucytosine
  • Gancyclovir
  • Isoniazid
  • Ketoconazole
  • l-asparaginase
  • Methotrexate
  • Niacin
  • ...

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