Upon completion of the chapter, the reader will be able to:
- 1. List at least six factors that can trigger asthma symptoms in patients with asthma.
- 2. Describe the four primary pathophysiologic events that lead to airways obstruction in asthma.
- 3. Describe the symptoms that patients with asthma are likely to experience.
- 4. Describe the characteristics that classify a patient as having intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent, and severe persistent asthma.
- 5. State the NAEPPâs recommendations for the treatment of intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent, and severe persistent asthma in adults and children 5 to 11 years old, and younger than 5 years old.
- 6. Describe the NAEPPâs recommended therapy for exercise-induced bronchospasm.
- 7. Describe the appropriate technique for using a metered dose-inhaler (MDI) and an MDI with a spacer/holding chamber.
- 8. Describe the appropriate technique for using a breath activated dry-powder inhaler (DPI) device.
- 9. State at least two determinants of lung delivery for MDIs, DPIs, nebulizers, and spacer devices.
- 10. Describe the recommended therapy for an acute exacerbation of asthma at home, in the emergency department, and in the hospital.
- 11. Describe how to monitor patients in the hospital with an acute exacerbation of asthma for both efficacy of therapy and potential side effects from therapy.
- 12. List the possible systemic effects of β2-agonists.
- 13. List at least four potential systemic adverse effects from high-dose inhaled corticosteroids.
- 14. Describe the differences in efficacy between inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene modifiers.
- 15. List two advantages of combination therapy with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting inhaled β2-agonists over increased dose of inhaled corticosteroids.
Asthma has been known since antiquity, yet it is a disease that still defies precise definition. The word asthma is of Greek origin and means “panting.” More than 2,000 years ago, Hippocrates used the ...