Upon completion of the chapter, the reader will be able to:
- 1. Distinguish among vaccines, toxoids, and immunobiologics.
- 2. Discuss the issues associated with live vaccines and inactivated vaccines, including whole inactivated, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines.
- 3. Evaluate patient characteristics as potential risk factors for poor immune response to vaccines.
- 4. Identify precautions for and contraindications to immunization.
- 5. Assess the effect of pregnancy on immunization risk.
- 6. Interpret immunization schedules for children and adolescents and determine how best to use these guidelines.
- 7. Interpret immunization guidelines for adults and determine how best to use these guidelines.
- 8. Compare and contrast immunization schedules for adults and children.
- 9. Develop an immunization plan for an immunocompromised patient.
- 10. Recommend appropriate influenza immunization strategies for individuals with chronic illness, healthy children and adults, pregnant women, and the elderly.
- 11. Formulate a plan to increase immunization of the public against influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
- 12. Recommend appropriate use of immunoglobulin for a variety of disease states.
- 13. Formulate a plan for postexposure prophylaxis for an individual exposed to rabies.
- 14. Identify reliable sources for current vaccine information.
Immunization is defined as rendering a person protected from an infectious agent. Immunity to an infectious agent can be acquired by exposure to the disease, by transfer of antibodies from mother to fetus, through administration of immunoglobulin (Ig), and from vaccination. Immunization is the process of introducing an antigen into the body to induce protection against the infectious agent without causing disease. An antigen is a substance that induces ...