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  • Image not available. Classification of nutrition status is often desired as a means to identify those who are nutritionally at risk due to over- or undernutrition.
  • Image not available. Nutrition screening programs should identify those at risk for poor nutrition-related outcomes as a consequence of either over- or undernutrition.
  • Image not available. Comprehensive nutrition assessment is the first step in formulating a patient-specific nutrition care plan for a patient who is found to be nutritionally at risk.
  • Image not available. A nutrition-focused medical, surgical, and dietary history and a nutrition-focused physical examination are key components of nutrition assessment and will reveal risk factors for and the likelihood of malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies or toxicities.
  • Image not available. Appropriate anthropometric measurements are essential in a complete nutrition assessment and should be evaluated based on published standards.
  • Image not available. Biochemical (laboratory) tests are essential for nutrition assessment but must be interpreted in the context of the physical findings, medical and surgical history, and clinical status of the patient, as well as specific test limitations.
  • Image not available. Nutrient deficiencies and toxicities involving micronutrients (e.g., vitamins or trace elements) or macronutrients (e.g., fat, protein, or carbohydrate) are possible, and a comprehensive nutrition assessment will identify the presence of these.
  • Image not available. When determining patient-specific nutrition requirements, goals should be established based on the patient's clinical condition and the need for maintenance or repletion in adults, as well as for continued growth and development in children.
  • Image not available. Drug-nutrient interactions can affect an individual's nutrition status as well as the response to and adverse effects seen with drug therapy and must be considered when evaluating a patient's nutrition care plan.
  • Image not available. An initial nutrition assessment and determination of nutrition requirements only defines an empirical starting point for a nutrition care plan. Close monitoring is required so that timely adjustments to the nutrition care plan can be made based on patient-specific responses to ensure appropriate nutrition-related outcomes.

Upon completion of the chapter, the reader will be able to:

  • 1. Compare and contrast marasmus and kwashiorkor.
  • 2. Discuss the characteristics of an effective nutrition screening program.
  • 3. Evaluate a patient’s actual body weight using patient specific data, such as ideal body weight and usual body weight.
  • 4. Calculate body mass index given patient specific data and use it and waist circumference to assess nutrition status.
  • 5. Explain the basis for and the role of bioelectrical impedance in nutrition assessment.
  • 6. Differentiate the role of visceral proteins (albumin, transferrin, and prealbumin) in nutrition assessment based on their half-life, body stores, and the factors which affect their serum concentrations.
  • 7. Discuss the risk factors for and signs and symptoms of either the deficiency or toxicity state of each of the essential trace minerals: zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, chromium, iodine, molybdenum, and iron.
  • 8. Identify risk factors and signs and symptoms of vitamin deficiencies given patient specific information.
  • 9. Estimate energy requirements given patient specific information.
  • 10. Recommend changes to an individual’s nutrition care plan based on results from indirect calorimetry.
  • 11. Evaluate the adequacy of an individual’s protein intake relative to usual requirements and ...

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