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absolute risk reduction

  • Difference in event rates for two groups, usually treatment and control groups


  • The patient's ability or willingness to take a drug regimen that the practitioner has clinically judged to be appropriately indicated, effective, and, based on all available evidence, can produce the desired outcomes without any harmful effects
  • The patient is able and willing to take the medication as intended.

advocacy (patient)

  • The willingness to assume an active role in obtaining resources or resolving problems on behalf of a patient
  • May require an intervention on the part of a health care professional for the benefit of a patient


  • A systematic review and appraisal of the patient's drug-related needs
  • Completed for the purpose of assuring that all the patient's drug therapy is appropriately indicated, the most effective available, and the safest possible assuring that the patient is able and willing to comply with the pharmacotherapeutic regimen, and identifying drug therapy problems
  • Includes the decision-making processes of the Pharmacotherapy Workup
  • One of three steps in the patient care process in the practice of pharmaceutical care (the care plan and the follow-up evaluation complete the process)


  • Doing what is best for the patient
  • One of the primary ethical principles that underlies the practice of pharmaceutical care

care plan

  • A detailed schedule outlining the practitioner's and the patient's activities and responsibilities; designed to achieve goals of therapy, and resolve and prevent drug therapy problems
  • Organized according to medical condition or indication for drug therapy
  • Includes (1) a statement of the goals of therapy; (2) the interventions by the practitioner and the actions to be taken by the patient to resolve any drug therapy problems, meet the goals of therapy, and prevent drug therapy problems; and (3) a schedule for the follow-up evaluation


  • A state of responsiveness to others that entails the willingness to become personally involved
  • The commitment to alleviate another person's vulnerability and suffering
  • Considered to be the cornerstone of the therapeutic relationship and a principal component of the philosophy of pharmaceutical care practice
  • Consists of three activities that the practitioner must accomplish: (1) assess the patient's needs, (2) obtain the resources required to meet these needs, and (3) determine if the help provided has produced positive or negative outcomes

clinical pharmacy

  • An emphasis in the profession of pharmacy from the mid-1960s to the present, which moved the focus from drug product to patient-oriented services including consultations
  • Includes a number of different services such as individualized (pharmacokinetic) dosing services, and drug utilization review, which are primarily provided in the institutional setting
  • The majority of the services are provided to/for physicians or at the request of physicians or are directed toward institutional policies and procedures
  • ACCP Definition: A health ...

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