- Place: where is the pain?
- Amount: present & past intensity of pain, worst? best? how often? constant? intermittent? when did it begin? (use numeric, verbal & visual analog scales depending on patient ability)
- Intensifiers: what makes pain worse?
- Nullifiers: what makes pain better? What pharmacological & non-pharmacological approaches (including complementary/alternative therapies) have been used? effective?
- Effects: side effects from past/present therapies? quality of life: physical, psychological & social function?
- Descriptors: what does it feel like? sharp, stabbing, burning, shooting, dull, aching, throbbing, crampy…?