1. Institute of Medicine. Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004.
3. Koh HK, Berwick DM, Clancy CM, et al. New federal policy initiatives to boost health literacy can help the nation move beyond the cycle of costly ‘crisis care’. Health Affairs 2012;31(2):434–443.
9. Gazmararian J. Chapter 5. Measuring Health System Responses to Health Literacy. In: Hernandez L, ed. Measures of Health Literacy: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2009: 73–90.
10. Kutner M, Greenberg E, Jin Y, Paulsen C. The Health Literacy of America’s Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2006. NCES 2006–483.
11. Williams MV, Baker DW, Parker RM, Nurss JR. Relationship of functional health literacy to patients’ knowledge of their chronic disease: A study of patients with hypertension and diabetes. Arch Intern Med 1998;158: 166–172.
12. Davis TC, Wolf MS, Bass PF, et al. Literacy and misunderstanding prescription drug labels. Ann Intern Med 2006;145:887–894.
13. Davis TC, Wolf MS, Bass PF, et al. Low literacy impairs comprehension of prescription drug warning labels. J Gen Intern Med 2006;21:847–851.
14. Wolf MS, Davis TC, Shrank WH, et al. A critical review of FDA-approved medication guides. Patient Educ Couns 2006;62:316–322.
15. Kripalani S, Henderson LE, Chiu EY, et al. Predictors of medication self-management skill in a low-literacy population. J Gen Intern Med 2006;21:852–856.
16. Persell SD, Osborn CY, Richard R, et al. Limited health literacy is a barrier to medication reconciliation in ambulatory care. J Gen Intern Med 2007;22:1523–1526.
17. Williams MV, Baker DW, Honig EG, et al. Inadequate literacy is a barrier to asthma knowledge and self-care. Chest 1998;114: 1008–1015.
18. Lindquist LA, Jain N, Tam K, et al. Inadequate health literacy among paid caregivers of seniors. J Gen Intern Med 2011;26(5):474–479.
19. Yin HS, Johnson M, Mendelsohn AL, et al. The health literacy of parents in the United States: A nationally representative study. Pediatrics 2009;124:S289–S298.
20. Dewalt DA, Berkman ND, Sheridan S, et al. Literacy and health outcomes: A systematic review. J Gen Intern Med 2004;19:1228–1239.
21. Baker DW, Wolf MS, Feinglass J, et al. Health literacy and mortality among elderly persons. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:1503–1509.
22. Eichler K, Wieser S, Brugger U. The cost of limited health literacy: A systematic review. Int J Public Health 2009;54:313–324.
24. Parikh NS, Parker RM, Nurss JR, et al. Shame and health literacy: The unspoken connection. Patient Educ Couns 1996;27:33–39.
25. Powell CK, Kripalani S. Brief report: Resident recognition of low literacy as a risk factor in hospital readmission. J Gen Intern Med 2005;20:1042–1044.
27. Bailey SC, Pandit AU, Curtis L, Wolf MS. Availability of Spanish prescription labels: A multi-state pharmacy survey. Med Care 2009;47:707–710.
29. DeWalt DA, Hink A. Health literacy and child health outcomes: A systematic review of the literature. Pediatrics 2009;124:S265–S274.
30. DeWalt DA, Dilling MH, Rosenthal MS, Pignone MP. Low parental literacy is associated with worse asthma care measures in children. Ambul Pediatr 2007;7(1):25–31.
31. Yin HS, Dreyer BP, Foltin G, et al. Association of low caregiver health literacy with reported use of nonstandardized dosing instruments and lack of knowledge of weight-based dosing. Ambul Pediatr 2007;7: 292–298.
32. Yin HS, Dreyer BP, van Schaick L, et al. Randomized controlled trial of a pictogram-based intervention to reduce liquid medication dosing errors and improve adherence among caregivers of young children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2008;162(9):814–822.
33. Yin HS, Mendelsohn AL, Fierman A, et al. Use of a pictographic diagram to decrease parent dosing errors with infant acetaminophen
: A health literacy perspective. Acad Pediatr 2011;11:50–57.
34. Mosher HJ, Lund BC, Kripalani S, Kaboli PJ. Association of health literacy with medication knowledge, adherence, and adverse drug events among elderly veterans. J Health Commun 2012;17(3):241–251.
35. Williams MV, Parker RM, Baker DW, et al. Inadequate functional health literacy among patients at two public hospitals. JAMA 1995;274:1677–1682.
36. Fang MC, Machtinger EL, Wang F, Schillinger D. Health literacy and anticoagulation-related outcomes among patients taking warfarin
. J Gen Intern Med 2006;21:841–846.
37. Marks JR, Schectman JM, Groninger H. The Association of Health Literacy and Socio-Demographic Factors with Medication Knowledge. Patient Educ Couns 2010;78: 372–376.
38. Kalichman SC, Ramachandran B, Catz S. Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapies in HIV patients of low health literacy. J Gen Intern Med 1999;14:273.
39. Graham J, Bennett IM, Holmes WC, Gross R. Medication beliefs as mediators of the health literacy–antiretroviral adherence relationship in HIV-infected individuals. AIDS Behav 2007;11:385–392.
40. Wolf MS, Davis TC, Osborn CY, et al. Literacy, self-efficacy, and HIV medication adherence. Patient Educ Couns 2007;65:253–260.
41. Kripalani S, Gatti M, Jacobson TA. Association of age, health literacy, and medication management strategies with cardiovascular medication adherence. Patient Educ Couns 2010;81:177–181.
42. Noureldin M, Plake KS, Morrow DG. Effect of health literacy on drug adherence in patients with heart failure. Pharmacotherapy 2012;32(9):819–826.
43. Lindquist LA, Go L, Fleisher J, et al. Relationship of health literacy to intentional and unitentional non-adherence of hospital discharge medications. J Gen Intern Med 27(2): 173–178.
44. Hironaka LK, Paasche-Orlow MK, Young RL, et al. Caregiver health literacy and adherence to a daily multi-vitamin with iron regimen in infants. Patient Educ Couns 2009;75:376–380.
45. Gatti ME, Jacobson KL, Gazmararian JA, et al. Relationship between beliefs about medications and adherence. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 2009;66:657–664.
46. Paasche-Orlow MK, Cheng DM, Palepu A, et al. Health literacy, antiretroviral adherence and HIV-RNA suppression: A longitudinal perspective. J Gen Intern Med 2006;21: 835–840.
47. Bains SS, Leonard ED. Associations between health literacy, diabetes knowledge, self-care behaviors, and glycemic control in a low income population with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther 2011;13(3):335–341.
48. Gazmararian J, Kripalani S, Miller MJ, et al. Factors associated with medication refill adherence in cardiovascular-related disease: A focus on health literacy. J Gen Intern Med 2006;21:1215–1221.
49. Edelberg HK, Shallenberger E, Wei JY. Medication management capacity in highly functioning community-living older adults: Detection of early deficits. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47:592–596.
50. Berkman ND, Dewalt DA, Pignone MP, et al. Literacy and Health Outcomes. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2004. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 87. Prepared by RTI International-University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-02-0016. 04-E007-02.
51. Berkman ND, Sheridan SL, Donahue KE, et al. Low health literacy and health outcomes: An updated systematic review. Ann Intern Med 2011;155:97–107.
52. Schillinger D, Grumbach K, Piette J, et al. Association of health literacy with diabetes outcomes. JAMA 2002;288:475–482.
53. Mitchell SE, Sadikova E, Jack BW, Paasche-Orlow MK. Health Literacy and 30-Day Postdischarge Hospital Utilization. J Health Commun 2012;17(s3): 325–338.
54. Howard DH, Gazmararian J, Parker RM. The impact of low health literacy on the medical costs of medicare managed care enrollees. Am J Med 2005;118:371–377.
56. Raynor DK, Blenkinsopp A, Knapp P, et al. A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative research on the role and effectiveness of written information available to patients about individual medicines. Health Technol Assess 2007;11:1–178.
57. Berman A. Reducing medication errors through naming, labeling, and packaging. J Med Syst 2004;28(Suppl 1): 9–29.
58. Shrank WH, Agnew-Blais J, Choudhry NK, et al.The variability and quality of medication container labels. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:1760–1765.
59. Institute of Medicine. Standardizing Medication Labels: Confusing Patients Less—Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2008:1–99, http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12077.html
60. Shrank WH, Parker R, Davis T, et al. Rationale and design of a randomized trial to evaluate an evidence-based prescription drug label on actual medication use. Contemp Clin Trials 2010;31:564–571.
61. Kripalani S, Riley MB, Mohan A, Mashburn J, Davidson E, Boyington DR. Development of a multi-lingual, patient-centered prescription container label. Poster Presentation at the 3rd Health Literacy Annual Research Conference, Chicago, IL, October 2011.
62. Kripalani S, Riley MB, Mohan A, et al. Effect of redesigned prescription drug labels on medication use: A randomized controlled trial. Oral Presentation at the 4th Health Literacy Annual Research Conference, Bethesda, MD, October 2012.
63. Institute of Medicine. To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.
64. Katz MG, Jacobson TA, Veledar E, Kripalani S. Patient literacy and question-asking behavior during the medical encounter: A mixed-methods analysis. J Gen Intern Med 2007;22:782–786.
65. Awe C, Lin S. A patient empowerment model to prevent medication errors. J Med Syst 2003;27:503–517.
66. Tarn DM, Heritage J, Paterniti DA, et al. Physician communication when prescribing new medications. Arch Intern Med 2006;166: 1855–1862.
67. Gaunt M. Confusing drug names: Let’s resolve to do better. Pharm Times 2009;8.
68. Marks JR, Schectman JM, Groninger H, et al. The Association of Health Literacy and Socio-demographic factors with medication knowledge. Patient Educ Couns 2010;78:372–376.
70. Praska JL, Kripalani S, Seright AL, Jacobson TA. Identifying and assisting low-literacy patients with medication use: A survey of community pharmacies. Ann Pharmacother 2005;39:1441–1445.
71. Weiss BL. Health Literacy and Patient Safety: Helping Patients Understand—Manual for Clinicians. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association Foundation, 2007:1–60.
72. Hardin LR. Counseling patients with low health literacy. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 2005;62:364–365.
73. Baker DW. The meaning and the measure of health literacy. J Gen Intern Med 2006;21:878–883.
74. Mancuso JM. Assessment and measurement of health literacy: An integrative review of the literature. Nurs Health Sci 2009;11: 77–89.
75. Davis TC, Crouch MA, Long SW, et al. Rapid assessment of literacy levels of adult primary care patients. Fam Med 1991;23:433–435.
76. Parker RM, Baker DW, Williams MV, Nurss JR. The test of functional health literacy in adults: A new instrument for measuring patients’ literacy skills. J Gen Intern Med 1995;10:537–541.
77. Ryan JG, Leguen F, Weiss BD, et al. Will patients agree to have their literacy skills assessed in clinical practice? Health Educ Res 2007;23:603–611.
78. Weiss BD, Mays MZ, Martz W, et al. Quick assessment of literacy in primary care: The newest vital sign. Ann Fam Med 2005;3: 514–522.
79. Helitzer D, Hollis C, Sanders M, Roybal S. Addressing the “other” health literacy competencies—Knowledge, dispositions, and oral/aural communication: Development of TALKDOC, an Intervention Assessment Tool. J Health Commun 2012;17(Suppl 3):160–175.
80. Kumar D, Sanders L, Perrin EM, et al. Parental understanding of infant health information: Health literacy, numeracy and the parental health literacy activities test (PHLAT). Acad Pediatr 2010;10(5):309–316.
81. Yin HS, Sanders LM, Rothman RL, et al. Assessment of health literacy and numeracy among Spanish speaking parents of young children; validation of the Spanish parental health literacy activities test (PHLAT Spanish). Acad Pediatr 2012;12(1):68–74.
82. Davis TC, Long SW, Jackson RH, et al. Rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine: A shortened screening instrument. Fam Med 1993;25:391–395.
83. Baker DW, Williams MV, Parker RM, et al. Development of a brief test to measure functional health literacy. Patient Educ Couns 1999;38: 33–42.
84. Haun J, Noland-Dodd V, Varnes J, et al. Testing the BRIEF health literacy screening tool. Fed Pract 2009;12:24–31.
85. Chew LD, Bradley KA, Boyko EJ. Brief questions to identify patients with inadequate health literacy. Fam Med 2004;36:588–594.
86. Garcia CH, Hanley J, Souffrant G. A single question may be useful for detecting patients with inadequate health literacy [Letter to the editor]. J Gen Intern Med 2008;23:1545.
87. Chew LD, Griffin JM, Partin MR, et al. Validation of screening questions for limited health literacy in a large VA outpatient population. J Gen Intern Med 2008;23:561–566.
88. Wallace LS, Rogers ES, Roskos SE, et al. Screening items to identify patients with limited health literacy skills. J Gen Intern Med 2006;21:874–877.
89. Patel PJ, Steinberg J, Goveas R, et al. Testing the utility of the newest vital sign (NVS) health literacy assessment tool in older African-American patients. Patient Educ Couns 2011;85:505–507.
90. Griffin JM, Partin MR, Noorbaloochi S, et al. Variation in estimates of limited health literacy by assessment instruments and non-response bias. J Gen Intern Med 2010;25(7):675–81.
91. Haun J, Luther S, Dodd V, Donaldson P. Measurement variation across health literacy assessments: Implications for assessment selection in research and practice. J. Health Commun 2012;17(Suppl 3):141–159.
92. Sarkar U, Schillinger D, Lopez A, Sudore R. Validation of self-reported health literacy questions among diverse English and Spanish-speaking populations. J Gen Intern Med 2010;26(3):265–271.
93. Lee SY, Bender DE, Ruiz RE, Cho YI. Development of an easy-to-use Spanish health literacy test. Health Serv Res 2006;41:1392–1412.
94. Lee SY, Stucky BD, Lee JY, et al. Short assessment of health literacy—Spanish and English: A comparable test of health literacy for Spanish and English speakers. Health Serv Res 2010;45(4):1105–1120.
95. Rawson KA, Gunstad J, Hughes J, et al. The METER: A brief, self-administered measure of health literacy. J Gen Intern Med 2009;25(1):67–71.
96. Bann CM, McCormack LA, Berkman ND, Squiers LB. The health literacy skills instrument: A 10-item short form. J Health Commun 2012;17(Suppl 3):191–202.
99. Kripalani S, Osborn CY, Vaccarino V, Jacobson TA. Development and evaluation of a medication counseling workshop for physicians: Can we improve on ‘take two pills and call me in the morning’? Med Educ Online 2011;16:7133. doi:10.3402/meo.v16i0.7133.
101. Kripalani S, Trobaugh AK, Coleman EA. Hospital discharge. In: Williams MV, Hayward R, eds. Comprehensive Hospital Medicine. Philadelphia: WB Saunders (Elsevier Inc), 2007: 77–82.
102. Sullivan C, Gleason K, Rooney D, et al. Medication reconciliation in the acute care setting: Opportunity and challenge for Nursing. J Nurs Care Qual 2005;20:95–98.
103. Cua YM, Kripalani S. Medication use in the transition from hospital to home. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2008;37: 136–141.
105. National Conference of Pharmaceutical Organizations. From reform to revolution: Maximizing the power of proper medication use in patient care. 2009, http://www.nacds.org/user-assets/pdfs/newsrelease/2009/NCPO_HCR_document.pdf.
109. American Society of Health System Pharmacists. ASHP Guidelines on Pharmacist-Conducted Patient Education and Counseling. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 1997;54:431–434.
110. McMahon SR, Rimsza ME, Bay RC. Parents can dose liquid medication accurately. Pediatrics 1997;100:330–333.
111. Schillinger D, Piette J, Grumbach K, et al. Closing the loop—Physician communication with diabetic patients who have low health literacy. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:83–90.
112. Mansoor LE, Dowse R. Effect of pictograms on readability of patient information materials. Ann Pharmacother 2003;37:1003–1009.
113. Katz MG, Kripalani S, Weiss BD. Use of pictorial aids in medication instructions: A review. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2006;63: 2391–2397.
114. Kripalani S, Robertson R, Love-Ghaffari MH, et al. Development of an illustrated medication schedule as a low-literacy patient education tool. Patient Educ Couns 2007;66:368–377.
115. Jacobson KL, Kripalani S, Gazmararian JA, McMorris KJ. How To Create a Pill Card. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2008. Prepared under contract No. 290-00-0011 T07. AHRQ publication No. 08-M016, http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/pillcard/pillcard.htm
116. Martin D, Kripalini S, DuRapau VJ. Improving medication management among at-risk older adults. J Gerontol Nurs 2012;38(6):24–34.
117. Muir KW, Ventura A, Stinnett SS, et al. The influence of health literacy level on an educational intervention to improve glaucoma medication adherence. Patient Educ Couns 2012;87:160–164.
118. Homer C, Susskind O, Alpert HR. An evaluation of an innovative multimedia educational software program for asthma management: Report of a randomized controlled trials. Pediatrics 2000;106: 210–215.
119. Stromberg A, Ahlen H, Fridlund B, Dahlstrom U. Interactive education on CD-ROM—A new tool in the education of heart failure patients. Patient Educ Couns 2002;46:75–81.