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Source: Shrader SP, Ragucci KR, Diaz VA. Contraception. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM, eds. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 8th ed. http://accesspharmacy.com/content.aspx?aid=7993297. Accessed June 16, 2012

  • Prevention of pregnancy after sexual intercourse by inhibiting sperm from reaching a mature ovum (methods that act as barriers or prevent ovulation) or by preventing fertilized ovum from implanting in endometrium (mechanisms that create unfavorable uterine environment).

Means of Confirmation and Diagnosis

  • American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) and other national organizations allow provision of hormonal contraception after medical history and blood pressure measurement.

Desired Outcomes

  • Prevention of pregnancy by method both appropriate and acceptable to individual.

  • Abstinence (rhythm) method not well accepted:
    • Associated with relatively high pregnancy rates
    • Necessitates avoidance of intercourse for several days in each cycle.
  • Table 1: Comparison of nonpharmacologic contraceptive methods and spermicides

Table 1. Comparison of Nonpharmacologic Contraceptive Methods and Spermicides

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