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Source: Mattox TW and Crill CM. Parenteral Nutrition. In: DiPiro, JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 8th ed. http://accesspharmacy.com/content.aspx?aid=8012448. Accessed July 28, 2012.

  • Provision of macro- and micronutrients by central or peripheral venous access to meet specific nutritional requirements

  • Consider parenteral nutrition (PN) when nutritional requirements cannot be met through use of gastrointestinal (GI) tract (Table 1).
  • Consider after suboptimal nutritional intake for:
    • 1 day in preterm infants
    • 2–3 days in term infants
    • 3–5 days in critically injured children
    • 5–7 days in other children
    • 7–14 days in older children and adults
  • Route and type of PN depend on patient’s clinical state and expected length of PN therapy (Figure 1).

Table 1. Indications for Adult Parenteral Nutrition

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